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Clinical research study Thoracoabdominal and complex aortic aneurysms| Volume 74, ISSUE 6, P1795-1806.e6, December 01, 2021

Preoperative and postoperative predictors of clinical outcome of fenestrated and branched endovascular repair for complex abdominal and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms in an Italian multicenter registry

      Abstract

      Objective

      Complex aortic aneurysms (juxtarenal aortic aneurysms [JAAA], pararenal aortic aneurysms [PAAAs], thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms TAAAs) are treated with increasing frequency through fenestrated and branched endovascular repair (F/B-EVAR); however, the outcome of these procedures is usually reported separately by single experiences and wider overviews are not frequent. The aim of this study was therefore to report an Italian experience analyzing the results obtained in four academic centers to evaluate the predictors of outcomes.

      Methods

      Between 2008 and 2019, all consecutive patients undergoing F/B-EVAR in four Italian university centers were recorded prospectively and analyzed retrospectively. Preoperative comorbidities and postoperative complications were classified according with the Society for Vascular Surgery reporting standard. Postoperative complications and 30-day/in-hospital mortality were assessed as early outcomes. Survival, freedom from reinterventions and target visceral vessels patency were assessed as follow-up outcomes by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Risk factors for 30-day/in-hospital mortality and spinal cord ischemia (SCI) were determined by multivariate analysis. Risk factors for follow-up mortality and reinterventions were evaluated by Cox regression model.

      Results

      Five hundred ninety-six patients underwent F/B-EVAR for 124 JAAAs (21%), 121 PAAAs (20%), and 351 TAAAs (59%). Elective and urgent procedures were performed in 520 (87%) and 76 (13%) cases, respectively. Postoperative cardiac, pulmonary, and renal complications were reported in 41 (7%), 50 (8%), and 80 (13%) patients, respectively. Seven bowel ischemia (1%) and 23 cerebrovascular complications (4%) occurred. Forty-seven (8%) patients suffered SCI with 17 cases (3%) of permanent paraplegia. Crawford's extent I-II-III TAAAs (odds ratio [OR], 13.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77-101.65; P = .012) and postoperative renal complications (OR, 3.84; 95% CI, 1.70-8.69; P = .001) independently predicted SCI. Thirty-two patients (5%) died in the perioperative period. Preoperative chronic renal failure (OR, 7.81; 95% CI, 7.81-26.31; P = .001), postoperative bowel ischemia (OR, 26.97; 95% CI, 3.37-215.5; P = .002), cardiac complications (OR, 5.77; 95% CI, 1.41-23.64; P ≤ .001), cerebrovascular complications (OR, 28.63; 95% CI, 5.20-157.5; P < .001), and SCI (OR, 5.99; 95% CI, 1.12-32.5; P = .036) were independently correlated with 30-day/in-hospital mortality. The mean follow-up was 25 ± 7 months. Freedom from target visceral vessels occlusion and freedom from reintervention were 96% and 92% at 1 year and 93% and 85% at 3 years, respectively. TAAAs (hazard ratio [HR]. 3.16; 95% CI, 1.68-5.92; P ≤ .001), postdissection TAAAs (HR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.30-4.90; P = .05) and postoperative bowel ischemia (HR, 11.98; 95% CI, 1.53-93.31; P = .018) were independent predictors of reinterventions. Survival was 88% and 78% at 1 and 3 years, respectively. Preoperative chronic renal failure (HR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.59-3.59; P ≤ .001), urgent repair (HR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.03-3.20; P = .039), TAAAs (HR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.13-3.56; P = .017), postoperative bowel ischemia (HR, 5.55; 95% CI, 2.11-14.59; P = .001), cardiac complications (HR, 3.89; 95% CI, 2.25-6.71; P ≤ .001), and pulmonary complications (HR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.56-3.35; P = .013) were independent predictors of mortality during follow-up.

      Conclusions

      F/B-EVAR is associated with satisfactory midterm outcomes in a nationwide experience. A variety of risk factors should be considered in F/B-EVAR indications and postoperative patient management to decrease the risk of postoperative complications and improve midterm outcomes.

      Graphical abstract

      Keywords

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